Rare Earths Elements - Alkane Resources Ltd
Level 12, 37 Bligh Street +61 2 8233 6168 contact@irmau.com

ASM will produce a suite of separated rare earth oxides and metals for up to 17 rare earth elements. Initial production will focus on neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), dysprosium (Dy), terbium (Tb), gadolinium (Gd) and yttrium (Y), with the other elements produced based on market demand and processing options. A range of product specifications will be available, with exact chemistries and particle properties to be designed and tailored based on market demand. In addition to producing a standard range, we will make products to specification under terms of the utmost confidentiality.

Praseodymium is very similar to the more-abundant neodymium, making these two rare earths difficult to separate. It is often supplied as “didymium”, which is a compound of un-separated praseodymium and neodymium. Its primary use, often as didymium, is in NdFeB permanent magnets, where praseodymium contributes improved corrosion resistance. Praseodymium has a few other applications, including the glass and ceramics industries.
57
Praseodymium
Pr
Oxide
Pr₆O
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Neodymium is the third most abundant rare earth element. It is one of the key raw materials in NdFeB permanent magnets, which are the primary driver of the rare earths industry, owing to a growing range of applications in electric motors. Magnets account for the majority of neodymium by weight, but the element is also used in a number of other applications – including as a dopant in the glass and ceramic industries, and as an alloying element for high-performance magnesium alloys to increase strength and corrosion resistance.
60
Neodymium
Nd
Oxide
Nd₂O₃
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The primary use for terbium is in the production of phosphors – both x-ray phosphors and green phosphors for energy efficient fluorescent lamps and display screens. It is also used in NdFeB magnets to preserve magnetic properties at high temperatures. The magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D, which contains terbium, has the highest magnetostriction of any alloy and has uses in sonar sensors and actuators.
65
Terbium
Tb
Oxide
Tb₄O₇
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Dysprosium is primarily used in the manufacture of NdFeB permanent magnets, where it is used to improve the performance of the magnet at high temperatures.
66
Dysprosium
Dy
Oxide
Dy₂O₃
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Cerium is the most abundant rare earth. It is widely used in a range of catalyst applications, in particularcatalytic convertors that reduce vehicle emissions.Another major use is for polishing applications to finish surfaces for electronic components, display screens, mirrors and optical glass. Cerium is also used to stabilise glass against the effects of UV.
58
Cerium
Ce
Oxide
-CeO₂
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Lanthanum is the second most abundant rare earth. It is most widely used in catalysts for fluid catalytic cracking of crude oil. It is also used heavily in metallurgical applications – notably combined with nickel in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in electric vehicles. Lanthanum is also added to improve performance of some superalloys.
59
Lanthanum
La
Oxide
-La₂O₃
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The main use for samarium is in SmCo magnets, an alternative to NdFeB magnets. Although more expensive, SmCo magnets are valued for their greater magnetic stability at high temperatures and smaller size than NdFeB magnets. Samarium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
62
Samarium
Sm
Oxide
Sm₂O₃
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Europium is mainly used to produce red, blue and white phosphors for display screens and energy efficient lighting, as its two valencies produce different colours, and white when combined. Europium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
63
Europium
Eu
Oxide
Eu₂O₃
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Gadolinium compounds are used in several different applications, including the production of contrast agents for injection into patients undergoing MRI, the production of green phosphors for plasma display panels, and superconductor technology. In China, it is used as a less expensive substitute for neodymium in NdFeB magnets. Gadolinium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
64
Gadolinium
Gd
Oxide
Gd₂O₃
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Holmium has the highest magnetic moment of any naturally occurring element. As a result, it has been used as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator in high-strength magnets. It is also used as a blue pigment in glass production, a nuclear control rod, and to dope lasers.
67
Holmium
Ho
Oxide
Ho₂O₃
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Erbium occurs naturally in limited concentrations. Even so, erbium is the most common dopant in optical fibre amplifiers to transmit long-distance signals. Erbium is also used as a pigment in glassware and erbium-doped lasers are used in surgeries.
68
Erbium
Er
Oxide
Er₂O₃
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Thulium has a limited number of commercial applications because of its scarcity and high cost, but has potential uses in the glass and fibre optics industries, phosphors, ceramic magnets and superconductors,medical irradiation and lasers.
69
Thulium
Tm
Oxide
Tm₂O₃
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Ytterbium is used in a range of applications, from thermal barrier coatings for nickel, iron and other transition metal alloy substrates to laser, fibre amplifier and fibre optic technologies. It is also used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions, since the electrical resistance of ytterbium metal increases when subjected to very high stresses. Ytterbium has a single dominant absorption band at 985nm (infrared), making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity.
70
Ytterbium
Yb
Oxide
Yb₂O₃
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Lutetium is the least abundant element in the lanthanide series. Unlike the other rare earths, it lacks a magnetic moment, and also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. Although in limited use due to scarcity, lutetium has been used as a host material for x-ray and LED phosphors, and lutetium aluminium garnet (Al5Lu3O12) has a potential use in highly refractive lenses.Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) is used in positron emission tomography (PET) detectors.
71
Lutetium
Lu
Oxide
Lu₂O₃
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Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element, which forms the basis for many of its applications. It is used widely in the ceramics industry, particularly for yttria-stabilised zirconia, which is used in gas and aviation turbines, automotive sensors, fibre-optic connectors and fuel cell components. Yttrium also accounts for around 70-80% of the total rare earths consumed in phosphors for display screens and energy efficient lighting, and is used as an alloying element several high-performance alloys.
39
Yttrium
Y
Oxide
Y₂O₃
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Alkane will produce a suite of 15 separated rare earth oxides. Click on each element to receive more information about each product.

Praseodymium is very similar to the more-abundant neodymium, making these two rare earths difficult to separate. It is often supplied as “didymium”, which is a compound of un-separated praseodymium and neodymium. Its primary use, often as didymium, is in NdFeB permanent magnets, where praseodymium contributes improved corrosion resistance. Praseodymium has a few other applications, including the glass and ceramics industries.
57
Praseodymium
Pr
Oxide
Pr₆Oₗₗ
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Neodymium is the third most abundant rare earth element. It is one of the key raw materials in NdFeB permanent magnets, which are the primary driver of the rare earths industry, owing to a growing range of applications in electric motors. Magnets account for the majority of neodymium by weight, but the element is also used in a number of other applications – including as a dopant in the glass and ceramic industries, and as an alloying element for high-performance magnesium alloys to increase strength and corrosion resistance.
60
Neodymium
Nd
Oxide
Nd₂O₃
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The primary use for terbium is in the production of phosphors – both x-ray phosphors and green phosphors for energy efficient fluorescent lamps and display screens. It is also used in NdFeB magnets to preserve magnetic properties at high temperatures. The magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D, which contains terbium, has the highest magnetostriction of any alloy and has uses in sonar sensors and actuators.
65
Terbium
Tb
Oxide
Tb₄O₇
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Dysprosium is primarily used in the manufacture of NdFeB permanent magnets, where it is used to improve the performance of the magnet at high temperatures.
66
Dysprosium
Dy
Oxide
Dy₂O₃
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Cerium is the most abundant rare earth. It is widely used in a range of catalyst applications, in particularcatalytic convertors that reduce vehicle emissions.Another major use is for polishing applications to finish surfaces for electronic components, display screens, mirrors and optical glass. Cerium is also used to stabilise glass against the effects of UV.
58
Cerium
Ce
Oxide
-CeO₂
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Lanthanum is the second most abundant rare earth. It is most widely used in catalysts for fluid catalytic cracking of crude oil. It is also used heavily in metallurgical applications – notably combined with nickel in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in electric vehicles. Lanthanum is also added to improve performance of some superalloys.
59
Lanthanum
La
Oxide
-La₂O₃
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The main use for samarium is in SmCo magnets, an alternative to NdFeB magnets. Although more expensive, SmCo magnets are valued for their greater magnetic stability at high temperatures and smaller size than NdFeB magnets. Samarium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
62
Samarium
Sm
Oxide
Sm₂O₃
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Europium is mainly used to produce red, blue and white phosphors for display screens and energy efficient lighting, as its two valencies produce different colours, and white when combined. Europium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
63
Europium
Eu
Oxide
Eu₂O₃
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Gadolinium compounds are used in several different applications, including the production of contrast agents for injection into patients undergoing MRI, the production of green phosphors for plasma display panels, and superconductor technology. In China, it is used as a less expensive substitute for neodymium in NdFeB magnets. Gadolinium is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
64
Gadolinium
Gd
Oxide
Gd₂O₃
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Holmium has the highest magnetic moment of any naturally occurring element. As a result, it has been used as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator in high-strength magnets. It is also used as a blue pigment in glass production, a nuclear control rod, and to dope lasers.
67
Holmium
Ho
Oxide
Ho₂O₃
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Erbium occurs naturally in limited concentrations. Even so, erbium is the most common dopant in optical fibre amplifiers to transmit long-distance signals. Erbium is also used as a pigment in glassware and erbium-doped lasers are used in surgeries.
68
Erbium
Er
Oxide
Er₂O₃
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Thulium has a limited number of commercial applications because of its scarcity and high cost, but has potential uses in the glass and fibre optics industries, phosphors, ceramic magnets and superconductors,medical irradiation and lasers.
69
Thulium
Tm
Oxide
Tm₂O₃
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Ytterbium is used in a range of applications, from thermal barrier coatings for nickel, iron and other transition metal alloy substrates to laser, fibre amplifier and fibre optic technologies. It is also used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions, since the electrical resistance of ytterbium metal increases when subjected to very high stresses. Ytterbium has a single dominant absorption band at 985nm (infrared), making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity.
70
Ytterbium
Yb
Oxide
Yb₂O₃
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Lutetium is the least abundant element in the lanthanide series. Unlike the other rare earths, it lacks a magnetic moment, and also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. Although in limited use due to scarcity, lutetium has been used as a host material for x-ray and LED phosphors, and lutetium aluminium garnet (Al5Lu3O12) has a potential use in highly refractive lenses.Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) is used in positron emission tomography (PET) detectors.
71
Lutetium
Lu
Oxide
Lu₂O₃
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Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element, which forms the basis for many of its applications. It is used widely in the ceramics industry, particularly for yttria-stabilised zirconia, which is used in gas and aviation turbines, automotive sensors, fibre-optic connectors and fuel cell components. Yttrium also accounts for around 70-80% of the total rare earths consumed in phosphors for display screens and energy efficient lighting, and is used as an alloying element several high-performance alloys.
39
Yttrium
Y
Oxide
Y₂O₃
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